This is a good article. Follow the link for more information. Seal of the United States Supreme Court. The naacp's legal strategy against segregation
This is a good article. Follow the link for more information. Seal of the United States Supreme Court. The naacp’s legal strategy against segregation mark v tushnet pdf of Education of Topeka, et al.
Judgment for defendants, 98 F. Judgment on relief, 349 U. District Court of Kansas reversed. 1896, which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education. Americans, instead perpetuated inferior accommodations, services, and treatment for black Americans.
Racial segregation in education varied widely from the 17 states that required racial segregation to the 16 in which it was prohibited. Myrdal had been a signatory of the UNESCO declaration. Supreme Court about how segregation affected black schoolchildren’s mental status. Supreme Court Justices, were highly aware of the harm that segregation and racism played on America’s international image. 1950, the first question he was asked was, “Why does America tolerate the lynching of Negroes? Douglas later wrote that he had learned from his travels that “the attitude of the United States toward its colored minorities is a powerful factor in our relations with India. Flag of the United States.
Template talk:Education in the U. The plaintiffs were thirteen Topeka parents on behalf of their 20 children. The suit called for the school district to reverse its policy of racial segregation. 12 communities with populations over 15,000.
He was convinced to join the lawsuit by Scott, a childhood friend. As directed by the NAACP leadership, the parents each attempted to enroll their children in the closest neighborhood school in the fall of 1951. They were each refused enrollment and directed to the segregated schools. The case “Oliver Brown et al. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas” was named after Oliver Brown as a legal strategy to have a man at the head of the roster. The lawyers, and the National Chapter of the NAACP, also felt that having Mr.
Brown at the head of the roster would be better received by the U. Shirley Hodison, Maude Lawton, Alma Lewis, Iona Richardson, and Lucinda Todd. The last surviving plaintiff, Zelma Henderson, died in Topeka, on May 20, 2008, at age 88. The District Court ruled in favor of the Board of Education, citing the U. The three-judge District Court panel found that segregation in public education has a detrimental effect on negro children, but denied relief on the ground that the negro and white schools in Topeka were substantially equal with respect to buildings, transportation, curricula, and educational qualifications of teachers. The Kansas case was unique among the group in that there was no contention of gross inferiority of the segregated schools’ physical plant, curriculum, or staff. The district court found substantial equality as to all such factors.
Supreme Court in 1967—argued the case before the Supreme Court for the plaintiffs. Of the seven pages covering “the interest of the United States,” five focused on the way school segregation hurt the United States in the Cold War competition for the friendship and allegiance of non-white peoples in countries then gaining independence from colonial rule. The existence of discrimination against minority groups in the United States has an adverse effect upon our relations with other countries. Racial discrimination furnishes grist for the Communist propaganda mills. The United States is under constant attack in the foreign press, over the foreign radio, and in such international bodies as the United Nations because of various practices of discrimination in this country. The members of the U.
Supreme Court that on May 17, 1954, ruled unanimously that racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. In spring 1953, the Court heard the case but was unable to decide the issue and asked to rehear the case in fall 1953, with special attention to whether the Fourteenth Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause prohibited the operation of separate public schools for whites and blacks. The justices in support of desegregation spent much effort convincing those who initially intended to dissent to join a unanimous opinion. Although the legal effect would be same for a majority rather than unanimous decision, it was felt that dissent could be used by segregation supporters as a legitimizing counter-argument.
Conference notes and draft decisions illustrate the division of opinions before the decision was issued. OK and we should let them work it out. Chief Justice Vinson had been a key stumbling block. All they are concerned about is to see that their sweet little girls are not required to sit in school alongside some big overgrown Negroes.
Nevertheless, the Justice Department sided with the African American plaintiffs. In his reading of the unanimous decision, Justice Warren noted the adverse psychological effects that segregated schools had on African American children. The Chief’s reliance on shoddy social science is widely seen as irresponsible. Constitution gave the Court the power to order its end. The activist faction believed the Fourteenth Amendment did give the necessary authority and were pushing to go ahead. Warren convened a meeting of the justices, and presented to them the simple argument that the only reason to sustain segregation was an honest belief in the inferiority of Negroes.
He began to build a unanimous opinion. Although most justices were immediately convinced, Warren spent some time after this famous speech convincing everyone to sign onto the opinion. Justices Jackson and Reed finally decided to drop their dissent. The final decision was unanimous.