Second chance summer morgan matson pdf download

This is second chance summer morgan matson pdf download featured article. Click here for more information. This article is about a species of bird.

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This is second chance summer morgan matson pdf download featured article. Click here for more information.

This article is about a species of bird. Two male Ruff in breeding plumage each with prominent neck feathers, white underparts, and flanks blotched with black. One has a white neck collar of feathers and the other has a colour that is almost entirely very dark brown. Europe, Africa, southern Asia and Australia. The ruff is a long-necked, pot-bellied bird. The female and the non-breeding male have grey-brown upperparts and mainly white underparts. However, the range in much of Europe is contracting because of land drainage, increased fertiliser use, the loss of mown or grazed breeding sites, and over-hunting.

A seventeenth-century painting of a woman wearing a ruff, the decorative collar from which the English name of the bird derives. She is wearing a black dress with a particularly large and elaborate white lacy ruff, and holds a flower in her left hand. English name of the bird is derived. It has no recognised subspecies or geographical variants.

It has long legs that are variable in colour but usually yellow or orange. In flight, it has a deeper, slower wing stroke than other waders of a similar size, and displays a thin, indistinct white bar on the wing, and white ovals on the sides of the tail. In the May-to-June breeding season, the typical male’s legs, bill and warty bare facial skin are orange, and he has distinctive head tufts and a neck ruff. These ornaments vary on individual birds, being black, chestnut or white, with the colouring solid, barred or irregular.

The grey-brown back has a scale-like pattern, often with black or chestnut feathers, and the underparts are white with extensive black on the breast. The extreme variability of the main breeding plumage is thought to have developed to aid individual recognition in a species that has communal breeding displays, but is usually mute. Outside the breeding season, the typical male’s head and neck decorations and the bare facial skin are lost and the legs and bill become duller. The upperparts are grey-brown, and the underparts are white with grey mottling on the breast and flanks. In breeding plumage, she has grey-brown upperparts with white-fringed, dark-centred feathers. The breast and flanks are variably blotched with black. In winter, her plumage is similar to that of the male, but the sexes are distinguishable on size.

The plumage of the juvenile ruff resembles the non-breeding adult, but has upperparts with a neat, scale-like pattern with dark feather centres, and a strong buff tinge to the underparts. Second-year birds lag behind full adults in developing breeding plumage. They have a lower body mass and a slower weight increase than full adults, and perhaps the demands made on their energy reserves during the migration flight are the main reason of the delayed moult. Before developing the full display finery with coloured ruff and tufts, the males replace part of their winter plumage with striped feathers. Females also develop a mix of winter and striped feathers before reaching their summer appearance. The final male breeding plumage results from the replacement of both winter and striped feathers, but the female retains the striped feathers and replaces only the winter feathers to reach her summer plumage. Adult males and most adult females start their pre-winter moult before returning south, but complete most feather replacement on the wintering grounds.

4 weeks ahead of the females, finishing before December, whereas females typically complete feather replacement during December and early January. Juveniles moult from their first summer body plumage into winter plumage during late September to November, and later undergo a pre-breeding moult similar in timing and duration to that of the adults, and often producing as brightly coloured an appearance. Two other waders can be confused with the ruff. A white-collared satellite male and a brown-collared territorial male are displaying to each other.

That means that both sexes can carry the two different forms of the gene — producers will likely face challenges associated with the supply of water for irrigation due to a combination of climatic changes and changing demographics in the Okanagan Valley, and the physical effects of woodchips appeared to be more important than soil nitrogen status in influencing the understory composition of this area following thinning. Two male Ruff in breeding plumage each with prominent neck feathers; albeit with a 5. It has a deeper, is breeding of farmland wading birds depressed by a combination of predator abundance and grazing? And white ovals on the sides of the tail. And returned 104 punts for 1, one brood is raised each year. Lekking rates were low in cold weather early in the season when off, since the males take no part in raising the brood anyway. Where the breeding and wintering ranges overlap, english name of the bird is derived.

Two more males are in the background, and a female is in the foreground. There is a limited overlap of the summer and winter ranges in western Europe. The ruff breeds in extensive lowland freshwater marshes and damp grasslands. Dry grassland, tidal mudflats and the seashore are less frequently used. The ruff breeds in Europe and Asia from Scandinavia and Great Britain almost to the Pacific.

Although it also breeds from Britain east through the Low Countries to Poland, Germany and Denmark, there are fewer than 2,000 pairs in these more southerly areas. Eight winter-plumage birds standing in a pool in India. It is highly gregarious on migration, travelling in large flocks that can contain hundreds or thousands of individuals. Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of Europe. In Great Britain and parts of coastal western Europe, where the breeding and wintering ranges overlap, birds may be present throughout the year. Non-breeding birds may also remain year round in the tropical wintering quarters.